How Many Ml In A Liter Of Blood

Blood Type Child Parental Calculator » Unicode, UTF8, Hexidecimal » RGB, Hex, HTML Color Conversion » G-Force RPM Calculator » Chemical Molecular Weight Calculator » Mole, Moles to Grams Calculator » R Plot PCH Symbols » Dilution Calculator. umol/24 h : micromoles per 24 hours. D50W is a caloric agent used to quickly increase levels of blood glucose in the body. 5 kg of red blood cells. 0-oz can? A barrel of oil is exactly 42 gal. Frozen red Blood cells can be stored for ten years, and more. Many cup models actually have metric lines for you to read how much liquid is inside once you take it out. Hennrick responded: See full answer. A unit of blood is never the same. As an example, on average a normal, healthy individual who donates a unit of blood (about 450 ml or ¾ pint) will fully recuperate from the blood loss in four to six weeks. Babies: Babies born full-term have about 75 milliliters (mL) of blood per kilogram of their body weight. on StudyBlue. How do i convert 1,000 liters. By continuing to use this site you consent to the use of cookies on your device as described in our cookie policy unless you have disabled them. 41 kilograms kg - kilo exactly for the masonry material type. ) Round off your answer to the nearest tenth. We lose approximately 1-2 liters of water just from breathing. 99% of blood cells are RBC and the other 1% is white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. One milliliter (British spelling: millilitre) (ml) is 1/1000 of a liter and is a unit of volume. 00 L of the solution? asked by Devin on November 16, 2010; General Chemistry. 5 liters of blood in her body so losing 100ml will not cause any health problems. How Many Liters of Blood in the Human Body? An average adult male weighing 160 pounds has 5 liters of blood in his body. How to decide on the most appropriate blood sampling technique for rats? The two tables below are designed to assist in determining the amount of blood to sample from the animal, and depending on that volume, the most appropriate. 27 grams/liter / 1000 = 0. To sell it on the street, you need to dilute it to a 10% solution, then sell it in 1 ml injectable doses. There are 1000 milliliters in a liter (1000 mL in 1 liter). It is also equal to 1 cubic centimeter, or about 15 minims. You can view more details on each measurement unit: ml or liter The SI derived unit for volume is the cubic meter. At what flow rate (mL/ h) should the IV be running? b. How many mL should be left in the IV bag after 2 hours? c. How many liters in a gallon? There are a few various types of Gallons accessible to us fluid and dry. 8 fl oz, which is roughly 4 cups (or just over a quart). Today, we have a wide range of testing options to choose from, with blood tests being among the most basic. A 300-g bird must be tube fed 2 ml liquid formula per 100 g body weight three times daily. Every adult human being (male or female) has 5 to 6 litres of blood. First of all just type the quart (quart) value in the text field of the conversion form to start converting quart to mL, then select the decimals value and finally hit convert button if auto calculation didn't work. A milliliter is about 4 drops of water. On top of that, only half of menstrual fluid is blood. ) and then divide one value by the other, keeping the units. 05 g of sugar. 23146 lb/ft³) [ weight to volume | volume to weight | price | density] About this Weight of Blood plasma calculator For instance, calculate how many ounces, pounds, milligrams, grams, kilograms or tonnes of a selected substance in a liter, gallon, fluid ounce, cubic centimeter or in a cubic inch. blood would be equal 1 ml. If you want to determine the number of milliliters in a liter, simply multiply the value in liters by the conversion factor. 001 Liter You may also use this volume units conversion calculator tool to convert between liters, milliliters and all other volume units. Of course, many use 1 ½ ounce for a standard shot which is around 16 shots. Intravenous, or IV solutions used in medicine must exert the same osmotic pressure as blood to prevent a net flow of water into or out of the blood cells. , a 750ml bottle) is approximately six glasses of wine – equal to about 25. ) About half of this is actually circulating at any one time. There are 1000 milliliters in one liter Divide milliliters by 1000 to get liters 234 ml = 0. But you need 500 ml, final volume, so 10 g. is grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath (g/210 L). 00 mL sample of water was treated as above and the I2 titrated with 0. 533g = x mL: 500 g x = 939 mL => 0. 1 liter = 1000 milliliters. 785 liters in a U. Therefore, there are 1000 milliliters in one liter. milligram per deciliter, the unit used in medicine to measure the concentration of substances in the blood. The desired red blood cell component is then returned back to the blood, but the patient has lost protein and blood volume. Gallons to liters transformation factors are (for US, UK and for both liquid and dry estimations). How many ml in 1 l? in 10 l? in 100 l? in 1000 l? 10. 05669 US wet quarts or 0. Below is the approximate number of U. How much is 10 mL in teaspoons or tablespoons? I need to take 10 mL of cough medicine. The abbreviation "cc" (for cubic centimetre, equal to a millilitre or mL) is a unit of the cgs system, that preceded the MKS system, that later evolved into the SI system. 001 L, or 1 mL. The average patient requires around 4. 85 British. How many milliliters are in a liter - Answered by a verified Tutor We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. Medical Calculations and Conversions Most of the material courtesy of Elizabeth Warren, RVT (ml) = 1. If you are using pads or tampons, measuring is a bit more tricky. 41 kilograms kg - kilo exactly for the masonry material type. 00727 gram/milliliter * 100 = 0. For practical purposes 100 g of water is the same as 100 ml. 5) What is the molarity of a solution in which 0. The average human adult has more than 5 liters (6 quarts) of blood in his or her body. 1-2 liters …. 5- 4 quarts. 07 liters of blood/kg of body weight = 5 Liters (5 L or 5000 ml [milliliters]) of blood So an average sized man has 5 liters (L) or 5000 milliliters (mL). That is until, I discovered your website. How many grams of powdered formula should you measure out for a 24-hour period, assuming no waste?. This adds up to about 10 pints (4. Although medical establishments consider blood triglyceride levels of 10 - 150 mg/dL, or 0. While very rarely used, laboratory chemicals sometimes come in 2. More than 20 kg (>44 lbs) 1500 mL + 20 mL per kg over 20 kg 25 kg (55 lbs) 1600 mL (53. 50 L of water if the. These numbers are what we will use for our estimation of how much blood a person has lost based on his vital signs. IF "5 ml" is 5 gm, rather than releasing 5ml water vapor in the liter container, you are dealing with a two phase system, water vapor in equilibrium with liquid water. Mix the solution by gently inverting the vial. If it is 95 mg in the subject concerned then it would 95 mg/100 ml of blood. Free shipping on many 20 Liter 1800 watt with. 1 g mol C6H12 O6 = 2. How many ounces in 2 liters. Hemp Oil Rescue Shampoo 265ml - Hemp Seed Oil Gel Caps Floyds Of Leadville Hemp Oil Hemp Oil Rescue Shampoo 265ml Nutiva Hemp Oil For Migraines Hemp is a hardy plant that grows well without pesticides or fertilizers, that makes it a safe item consume. 87988 imperial quarts or 1. Any person between 18 and 60 years, weighing 45 kg or more can safely donate one unit of blood, that is, 350 ml once every. Re: Milligrams of Blood (mostly water) to milliliters of blood Hello Poster, Nice work! Yes, your logic and calculations are correct. Measurement Conversion Commom tables useful to aquarists. The average patient requires around 4. Ideally it should be less than 3% of the total blood volume, and where possible, micro-sampling techniques to reduce the amount further are preferred. A specimen for blood glucose determination should be taken before injecting the dextrose. The volume of a red blood cell is about 90. Blood volume (BV) can be calculated given the hematocrit (HC; the fraction of blood that is red blood cells) and plasma volume (PV), with the hematocrit being regulated via the blood oxygen content regulator:. A graduated cylinder is weighed and found to have a mass of 48. A patient receives an IV containing 2. Example Calculations of Milliequivalents 4- A solution contains 10 mg/100 mL of K+ ions. 5 kg of red blood cells. Concentrations by %, as well as ppm and ppb Find the mass of 1 liter of blood in How many milligrams of KCl are needed to prepare 10 ml of a 1. It also adds that higher fluid intake has not shown any convincing health benefits, except in maybe preventing recurrent kidney stones. This five-liter average is estimated for a standard adult male weighing 160 pounds. 4 is the LD50, meaning the Lethal Dose for 50% of adults. conversion chart for converting standard us units into standard international units tsh µiu/ml 1 miu/l t-3 uptake % 0. 4 x 10^9 x 9. The abbreviation "cc" (for cubic centimetre, equal to a millilitre or mL) is a unit of the cgs system, that preceded the MKS system, that later evolved into the SI system. 05 g of sugar. It refers to the fact that the bottles were 1/5th of a gallon. Best Answer: 5% means 5 g in 100g. How many grams of glucose does this patient receive after 12 hours? 35 mL 2. Amount of Blood to Transfuse The blood deficit can be approximately estimated by the following formula (assuming normal blood vol-ume is at 8%). 785 liters in a U. A cubic millimetre (mm 3) = mm3 = mm 3 = 1 mm x 1 mm x 1 mm. Calcoholator: Blood Alcohol Calculator Did you know? There is the same amount of alcohol in one regular beer (340 ml/12 oz, 5% alcohol), one glass of wine (140 ml/5 oz, 12% alcohol), one glass of fortified wine (85 ml/3 oz, 20% alcohol) and one shot of spirits (45 ml/1. Trimethoprim lactate (Sigma Cat. For caloric intake, D5W is used for most children and D10W - for neonates (less than 1 month). Macrodrip is the most common, delivering 1ml every 15 drops. Purpose To determine the effects of the sodium content of maintenance fluid therapy on cumulative fluid balance and electrolyte disorders. From the instructor, obtain 1. How many cc in 1 liter? The answer is 1000. 09 grams per 100 ml of plasma (more familiarly expressed as 90 mg/dl). This online unit converter allows quick and accurate conversion between many units of measure, from one system to another. Many are coming in just for the blood and then D/C. Blood draws in infants and children should not exceed 5% of their total blood volume in any 24 hour period, unless medically necessary. 0031 mL/mmHg/dL x 100 mmHg or about 0. An adult heart pumps about 6,000-7,500 liters (1,500-2,000 gallons) of blood daily. 5 L is 500 mL. 1 Imperial pint (UK) = 20 UK fluid ounces ≈ 568 mL (0. Because oxygen is relatively insoluble in water, only 3 ml can be dissolved in 1 L of blood at the normal arterial PO2 of 100 mmHg. While very rarely used, laboratory chemicals sometimes come in 2. Quite simply, 60% of the body is made up of water and a large percentage of that is in our blood, which is a liquid. If you were to lose a Liter of blood, how long would it take your body to make that amount of blood back? Biology. Blood Volume. 5g/100 ml of blood. An average female has slightly lesser than 5 liters of blood in the body. Many are coming in just for the blood and then D/C. 6 to get the weight function. This is enough to calculate the molarity. How many milliliters of 0. 7 and 5 liters, although the more recent sources state the volume of blood in an average adult as 4. (36 kg) dog has 0. 00 mL sample of water was treated as above and the I2 titrated with 0. 07 liters of blood/kg of body weight = 5 Liters (5 L or 5000 ml [milliliters]) of blood So an average sized man has 5 liters (L) or 5000 milliliters (mL). But some research suggests that this figure may. 5M NaOH must be added to 200 mL of 0. Answer: 425 mL of water must be added. How many milliliters in a liter? The volume units' conversion factor of liters to milliliters is 1000. A transfusion may be needed to treat a. Specific unit weight of concrete - amount properties converter for conversion factor exchange from 1 liter L equals = 2. > Per the American Red Cross, the average adult has 10 pints of blood, depending on weight. The total blood volume. Blood cells or "formed elements" (about 45% of blood), which is composed mainly of red blood cells (RBC) i. 11 mL were required to reach the end point. A normal kidney will filter how many ml of blood per minute. Allow the media to solidify and condensation to dry. If you withdraw 1 mL samples from the bottle, every sample will have the same sugar concentration, and in every 1 mL sample there will be 0. 5 liters of blood in her body so losing 100ml will not cause any health problems. Many are coming in just for the blood and then D/C. 5 millimoles in a liter (mmol/L), or 5 milliequivalents in a liter (mEq/L). Alonso on 2 liters of blood loss: Short answer-yes. How much plasma can be removed from whole blood? The hematocrit is usually 40-45% (not 7%), so from 600 ml of whole blood you can expect to get 600 x 55-60% = 330-360 ml of plasma. A liter is 33. The approximate molecular weight of hemoglobin is 64,500g/mol. (NOTE: Winek's Drug & Chemical Blood-Level Data 2000 is reprinted with written permission as a courtesy to our customers. 3 mL of alcohol. A sample of hexane, C6H14, is added to the graduated cylinder, and the total mass is measured as 57. such a small ammt I would guess that I have to have a graduated cylinder. Frozen red Blood cells can be stored for ten years, and more. 66 g in 100 ml distilled water, and filter. The average amount of blood in your body is an estimate because it can depend on how much you weigh, your. 6 units of blood. 0ml whole blood. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding need additional fluids to stay hydrated. From the instructor, obtain 1. How many liters of water are needed to be consumed by beef cattle per day? A cow with a calf- 12 gallons per day (GPD), mature cow-10 GPD, weanling-6-9 GPD, yearling-9-12 GPD, and a bull 12 GPD. A unit of blood is equivalent to approximately 1 pint or 450 milliliters, according to the Canadian Blood Services website. uM/min/g prot : micromoles/minute/grams protein. Whole blood == PRBC’s == Platelets == FFP == Specific factors == Bleeding Problems. This Site Might Help You. 1 cubic meter is equal to 1000000 cc, or 1000 liter. 75 for men or 3. How many milliliters are in a liter - Answered by a verified Tutor We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. Studies were done using low-grade cannabis, only 3. it can alleviate many of the symptoms of high blood pressure. Blood Type Child Parental Calculator » Unicode, UTF8, Hexidecimal » RGB, Hex, HTML Color Conversion » G-Force RPM Calculator » Chemical Molecular Weight Calculator » Mole, Moles to Grams Calculator » R Plot PCH Symbols » Dilution Calculator. -As far as actual body weight changes, the 500 ml of blood removed weighs about 1. Can Cbd Oil Fix High Blood Pressure Adding A Carrier Oil To Cbd Tincture, Can Cbd Oil Fix High Blood Pressure Can Cbd Oil Be Used In Place Of Celebrex, Can Cbd Oil Fix High Blood Pressure How Many Ml To Take Of Cbd Oil For Sleep, Can Cbd Oil Fix High Blood Pressure How Much Cbd Hemp Oil For Anxiety. How many µg are in 200 ml of a 0. 75 ml of other liquids. What would be the concentration of a solution formed when 1. The blood collection procedure takes about 15 minutes, is safe, and is performed by a fully trained scientist, nurse or doctor. Calculate the volume in liters of a 0. ml / Liter = ppm. Then the 150 mL of the diluted solution is next to cancel out "Liter of diluted solution" in D4. That is until, I discovered your website. Macrodrip is the most common, delivering 1ml every 15 drops. 85 British. Blood Volume. 480 ml=1 pint. 5 Pints of blood in the body. 87988 imperial quarts or 1. I need to measure 1 ml of liquid. However, drinking too much can lead to water intoxication, which can cause symptoms as severe as seizures and brain damage. divide by 1,000. Most sources state the volume of blood in an average human adult, who is between 150 to 160 pounds, as between 4. A 50% solution is available. 0031 mL/mmHg/dL x 100 mmHg or about 0. Drinking too much wine, however, can lead to weight gain as it contains a significant number of calories. But some research suggests that this figure may. Fortunately, this is a very uncommon occurrence in. How many cc in 1 liter? The answer is 1000. You lift 5 grams of hydrocodone from the pharmacy tech you've been "having lunch with" in the back hallway. 1 Gallon [Fluid, US] = 3. It is equivalent to 1 cubic centimeter in the SI. Replacing Blood Loss "Ideally, blood loss should be replaced with crystalloid or colloid solutions to maintain intravascular volume (normovolemia) until the danger of anemia outweighs the risks of transfusion. Milking dairy cows will need about 20 GPD. Blood carries out many critical functions in the body. Determining how much blood is in the average human body depends on how much a person weighs. If the number of white blood cells in your blood increases, it is a sign of an infection somewhere in the body. In adults, this amounts to 4. The proper interpretation of postmortem drug concentrations is complex and complicated by many factors including individual variations in response to drugs, tolerance, physical stature, and disease states; the presence of other drugs, and the potential for postmortem changes in blood-drug concentrations. The average human adult has more than 5 liters (6 quarts) of blood in his or her body. weeks : weeks. For example, to find out how many liters is 500 mL, divide 500 by 1000, that makes 0. The exact answer to this question how many ounces in a pound is 16 Ounces (oz) or you can also say 1 lb. 30 ml=1 ounce. -As far as actual body weight changes, the 500 ml of blood removed weighs about 1. If you want to determine the number of milliliters in a liter, simply multiply the value in liters by the conversion factor. Calculate the flow rate using 10 drop/min IV tubing. uU/mL : microunits. These numbers are what we will use for our estimation of how much blood a person has lost based on his vital signs. 6 × 10 5 molecules per minute of carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3, to carbon dioxide, CO 2, and water, H 2 O. How many ml/hr will you infuse? 1000 ml = 125 ml/hr 8 hrs 12 A provider orders 1 gram of Vancomycin in 250 ml of D5W to infuse over 90 minutes for a patient with Urinary Tract Infection. That’s 1,000 grams. Use the charts above to convert: 750 ml to oz - grams to ounces - how many grams in an ounce - how many ml in a liter - how many ounces in a liter -ml to oz - oz to grams - oz to ml - grams to oz - ounces to grams - 52 oz jar how many ml. Question Calculate the volume in liters of a 0. Easily convert deciliter to liter, convert dl to l. This five-liter average is estimated for a standard adult male weighing 160 pounds. 3 mL of oxygen per dL of blood. These numbers are what we will use for our estimation of how much blood a person has lost based on his vital signs. the approximate hemoglobin molecular weight is 64,500g/mol. Hemophilia A → Give Factor VIII ==. You can view more details on each measurement unit: cc or liter The SI derived unit for volume is the cubic meter. orders 2000 ml- of a 5% w/v solution of albumin in 0. 5 ng/ml (< 3. 4 How many mL of a potassium acetate stock solution, 5mEq/mL, will supply the potassium needed for 2 L of the TPN solution?. or if anyone knows where to buy one from a B&M store. Many are coming in just for the blood and then D/C. In fact, some are complaining that on our unit, we run the blood in too slow, as they get each unit over 2 hours at "the other outpatient clinic. A patient receives an IV containing 2. The only thing I could add is that blood is actually a bit denser than water, with a specific gravity about 1. A liter is defined as the volume of a cube that is 10 centimeters on a side. What is ppm? Short for Parts Per Million Liters of minerals have a concentration in a ration form, or how many parts of the fluid are mineral to the total volume. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results. A graduated cylinder is weighed and found to have a mass of 48. Can Cbd Oil Fix High Blood Pressure Adding A Carrier Oil To Cbd Tincture, Can Cbd Oil Fix High Blood Pressure Can Cbd Oil Be Used In Place Of Celebrex, Can Cbd Oil Fix High Blood Pressure How Many Ml To Take Of Cbd Oil For Sleep, Can Cbd Oil Fix High Blood Pressure How Much Cbd Hemp Oil For Anxiety. Fortunately, this is a very uncommon occurrence in. How many milliliters are in a liter - Answered by a verified Tutor We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. 7 and 5 liters, although the more recent sources. An average adult body with a weight of 150 to 180 pounds will contain approximately 4. 5 quarts, of blood. A man weighing 154 pounds (69. Introduction to BioChem Lecture - If blood has a density of 1. How many ml in 1 l? in 10 l? in 100 l? in 1000 l? 10. Every adult human being (male or female) has 5 to 6 litres of blood. Repeated doses and supportive treatment may be required in severe cases. The legal driving limit in the USA is also 0. Note that rounding errors may occur, so always check the results. Blood Volume. 0-oz can? A barrel of oil is exactly 42 gal. 11 mL were required to reach the end point. 006012 to get the height function. uU/mL : microunits. 28 x 1021 chloride ions e. Below is the approximate number of U. is grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath (g/210 L). Answers to Level 1 Test. On top of that, only half of menstrual fluid is blood. Dissolve 0. 49 x 1022 chloride ions d. 23146 lb/ft³) [ weight to volume | volume to weight | price | density] About this Weight of Blood plasma calculator For instance, calculate how many ounces, pounds, milligrams, grams, kilograms or tonnes of a selected substance in a liter, gallon, fluid ounce, cubic centimeter or in a cubic inch. Platelets are small Blood cells that assist in the process of Blood clotting helping those with leukemia and other cancers, controlling bleeding. In addition to the 125 mL of IV solution, the patient also receives 50 mL of gentamicin during the 02:00 to 03:00 hour. 3) The doctor orders an IV to infuse at 125cc/hr. This means that the conversion factor depends on the molecular weight of the substance in question. How much is 10 mL in teaspoons or tablespoons? I need to take 10 mL of cough medicine. Calculating BAC has many variables, so take this calculator as an approximation. Through activities of daily living, the average person loses about 3- 4 liters (about 10-15 cups) of fluid a day in sweat, urine, exhaled air and bowel movement. Liters to fluid flows (fl oz) volume units conversion factors are listed below. return to top. Therefore, there are 1000 milliliters in one liter. Men, on average, have 4. 7 and 5 liters, although the more recent sources. U/mL : units per milliliter. grams of ethanol in 100 mL of blood). This Site Might Help You. 27 grams/liter / 1000 = 0. Men average 10 to 11 pints and women nine to 10 pints. (NOTE: Winek's Drug & Chemical Blood-Level Data 2000 is reprinted with written permission as a courtesy to our customers. An adult patient with renal cancer, weighing 95 kg, is to receive vincristine 25 mcg/kg/day IV. 25 ng/ml in the bloodstream from a single five second, 30 ml puff from a joint. Conversion 3. This value is typical for an average adult at rest, although cardiac output may reach up to 30 liters/ minute during extreme exercise. 4 ml of "Teacher's Stock Blood Solution" in a 15-ml plastic vial with cap. How many liters in a gallon? There are a few various types of Gallons accessible to us fluid and dry. If a baby weighs about 8 pounds, they’ll have about 270 mL of blood in their body, or 0. 0 M solution is needed? 2. How many liters of blood does the average person's heart pump in a week? 98. Covert 1 liter of blood into grams? This is a problem from my physics homework. You can view more details on each measurement unit: cc or liter The SI derived unit for volume is the cubic meter. Based on your description, if the nurses are indeed just draining 500 ml every six hours and leaving the rest in, they are draining only 2 liters out per day and allowing the excess to accumulate. Each red blood cell has a volume of approximately 90 times 10 to the negative 15 liters. Now the liters of solution is needed. 8 kilograms) would have about 5. Density can be written as an equality. 25 L Introduction to BioChem Lecture - If blood has a density of. 02% (w/v) solution of alanine? Express a blood glucose concentration of 80 mg per 100 ml as a molarity. 33 because there are 3 teaspoons in a table spoon. The nurse is running the IV piggyback on the infusion pump. grams of ethanol in 100 mL of blood). What is the blood volume (liters) of a 200 lb. How many grams of powdered formula should you measure out for a 24-hour period, assuming no waste?. How much water do you need per day? A healthy sedentary adult living in a temperate climate (~21 °C or 70 °F) who sweats only a little may need about 2 liters (range: 1. 53 ounces : 100 grams : 4 ounces : 113 grams : 8 ounces. How many milliliters in a liter? The volume units' conversion factor of liters to milliliters is 1000. A woman can have a heavier period and lose a lot more blood. A 50% solution is available. It is equal to 1/1000 liter, or one cubic centimeter, therefore, 1ml =1/1000 L =1 CM3. how many moles of hemoglobin are present. According to the U. 1 Gallon [Fluid, US] = 3. 5 quarts, of blood. xmL g/hr mL 025 g 100. Menstrual bleeding, their intensity and how many grams of blood a woman loses during menstruation is an important sign by which one can judge the state of women's health. The proper interpretation of postmortem drug concentrations is complex and complicated by many factors including individual variations in response to drugs, tolerance, physical stature, and disease states; the presence of other drugs, and the potential for postmortem changes in blood-drug concentrations. In both cases, the unit is usually modified by milli- or micro- or other prefix, and is always "per" some volume, often a liter. To fully compare strength of minerals, you must understand how they are measured. " Now B3 matches the units of our answer in I3 (green boxes below). Nov 16, 2010 · A. So we put 1 liter in the numerator (A2&B2) and 0. This volume fluctuates with the size of the vessel, so children and women typically have less (an average of 4.